CSS Full Form – What is CSS ?

CSS Full Form – Cascading Style Sheets

Introduction

CSS Full Form – Cascading Style Sheets, is a simple design language designed to make the process of making web pages presentable easier.

The style and feel of a web page are handled by CSS. You can use CSS to manage the color of the text, font style, paragraph spacing, how columns are scaled and laid out, what background pictures or colors are used, layout designs, display variants for different devices and screen sizes, and a multitude of other effects.

CSS is simple to learn and understand, but it gives you a lot of power over how an HTML document looks. CSS is frequently used in conjunction with the markup languages HTML or XHTML. 

Why should we use CSS?

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a declarative programming language. We don’t tell the browser how to render a page when we write CSS. Instead, we list the rules for our HTML content one by one and leave the rendering to the browsers. Keep in mind that the web was primarily created by inexperienced programmers and eager amateurs. CSS followed a predictable and, perhaps more crucially, forgiving format that could be picked up by almost anyone. This isn’t a flaw; it’s a feature.

CSS, on the other hand, was one-of-a-kind. It allowed for the cascading of styles. The answer is right there in the name. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. Following a very intricate hierarchy called specificity, styles can inherit and overwrite other styles that had previously been specified. But it was the ability to have many stylesheets on the same page that was the game-changer.

In the early days of CSS, this was a hot topic of discussion. Developers, according to some, should have unlimited control. Others should be under the user’s control. The percentages were eventually dropped in favor of more clearly stated guidelines for which CSS definitions would overrule others. That is, after all, why we have specificity. 

Whose responsibility is it to create and maintain CSS ?

CSS is developed and maintained by the CSS Working Group, which is part of the World Wide Web Consortium. The CSS Working Group generates specification documents. A specification becomes a recommendation when it has been reviewed and officially ratified by W3C members.

Because the W3C has no control over how the language is implemented, these ratified specifications are referred to as recommendations. That software is created by independent businesses and groups.

NOTE: The World Wide Web Consortium, or W3C, is a non-profit organization that offers recommendations on how the Internet should work and expand. 

CSS Code Example

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
body {
background-color: lightblue;
}

h1 {
color: white;
text-align: center;
}

p {
font-family: verdana;
font-size: 20px;
}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<h4>My CSS Example</h4>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

Output

My CSS Example

This is a paragraph.

Versions in CSS

CSS1 (Cascading Style Sheets Level 1) was released as a suggestion by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in December 1996. This version includes a simple visual formatting model for all HTML tags, as well as a description of the CSS language.

CSS2 is a W3C recommendation that improves on CSS1 and was released in May 1998. Support for media-specific style sheets, such as printers and audio devices, as well as downloaded fonts, element placement, and tables, has been added in this version. 

CSS Characteristics

Now that we’ve covered the basics of CSS and its components, we’ll move on to the characteristics of CSS. Style rules, which are read by the client browser and applied to various components in your document, are one of CSS’s main features. The following are some of the major characteristics:

  1. A style rule is made up of two parts: a selector and a declaration block.
  2. The selector is used to indicate which HTML component should be styled.
  3. One or more declarations are contained within the declaration block, separated by semicolons.
  4. There is a CSS property name, a semicolon, and a value for each declaration. Color is an example of a property, and the value is red in color. The property is font size, and the value is 15px.
  5. Each block is surrounded by curly braces, and the CSS declaration concludes with a semicolon.
  6. CSS selectors are used to locating HTML elements based on their name, id, attribute, class, and other attributes.
  7. The ID of an element will select one unique element.
  8. To choose a specific element with a specified id, use the # function in conjunction with the id attribute.
  9. If you want to select items with a specific class, type the period character followed by the name class.
  10. Universal selector: If you don’t want to choose elements of a specific type, you can use the universal selector to just match the element name. 

Pros

  1. CSS saves time by allowing you to write CSS once and reuse it across different HTML pages. Each HTML element can have its own style, which you can apply to as many Web pages as you desire.
  2. Pages load faster since you don’t have to write HTML tag attributes every time you use CSS. Simply write a single CSS rule for a tag and apply it to all instances of that tag. As a result, fewer lines of code mean speedier download times.
  3. Simple upkeep: To make a worldwide modification, simply modify the style, and all elements on all web pages will be automatically updated.
  4. Nicer styles than HTML CSS provides a far larger set of characteristics than HTML, thus you may give your HTML page a much better look than HTML attributes. 

Cons

  1. CSS, from CSS 1 to CSS 3, causes web browsers to get confused.
  2. When it comes to CSS, what works in one browser could not function in another. The web developers must test the program’s compatibility by executing it in multiple browsers.
  3. There is insufficient security.
  4. Once we’ve made the adjustments, we’ll need to double-check for compatibility. All browsers are affected by the same change.
  5. The world of programming languages is complex for non-programmers and beginners. CSS levels, such as CSS, CSS 2, and CSS 3, can be rather confusing.

Official Site for CSS

CSS Full Form

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Conclusion

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